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Glossary Results

P - 136 matching terms

PALM REST
See Rest, Palm.

PAPER DISC
See Disc, Paper.

PAPER SHELL
See Shell, Paper.

PARKERIZING
A non-reflecting, rust-resistant finish used on metal surfaces of some firearms. Also called Phosphatizing or Phosphate Coating.

PAT
Power Actuated Tool. Refers to a tool/ammunition system for fastening devices used in construction. Also see Cartridges, Power Device; Cartridge, Industrial.

PATCH
1. A piece of cloth used with a rod to clean the bore of a firearm.
2. A piece of paper wrapped around lead bullets to prevent leading of the barrel and to improve the gas seal.
3. In muzzleloading firearms, the piece of cloth surrounding the bullet or ball to improve the gas seal.

PATRIDGE SIGHT
See Sight, Patridge.

PATTERN
The distribution of shot fired from a shotgun. Generally measured as a percentage of pellets striking in a 30” circle at 40 yards. Some skeet guns are measured with a 30” circle at 25 yards.

PATTERN, BLOWN
A pattern usually with a low percentage of pellets and of erratic distribution. Also known as Doughnut Pattern or Cartwheel Pattern depending on its overall shape and distribution.

PATTERN, DOUGHNUT
A pattern whose central area has no pellet hits. Sometimes called a Cartwheel.

PAWL
A pivoted or hinged part used to cause uni-directional motion over a definite distance or angle of rotation. Also called a Dog or Hand.

PEEP SIGHT
See Sight, Peep.

PELLET (PROJECTILE)
1. A common name for the small spherical projectiles loaded in shot shells.
2. A non-spherical projectile used in some air rifles.

PELLET, PRIMER
See Primer, Pellet.

PENETRATION
The depth that a bullet or shot pellet will travel into the target medium.

PERCUSSION
A means of ignition of a propellant charge by a mechanical blow against the primer (modern) or cap (antique).

PERCUSSION CAP
The ignition source for several types of muzzleloading firearms, usually consisting of a copper alloy cup containing the priming mix. It is placed on the nipple.

PERCUSSION COMPOSITION
A combination of chemical ingredients that will explode when struck sharply with sufficient energy.

PIEZOELECTRIC PRESSURE TRANSDUCER
See Transducer, Piezoelectric Pressure.

PIN, HINGE
A cylindrical member at the forward end of a frame about which the barrel or barrels pivot. Also called a Joint Pin.

PISTOL
A generic term for a hand-held firearm.

PISTOL GRIP
See Grip, Pistol.

PISTOL GRIP ADAPTER
An accessory made to attach to the front of a revolver grip to afford a better grasp.

PISTOL, AIR
A handgun with the same principle of operation as an air gun. See Gun, Air. Also called Pellet Pistol.

PISTOL, AUTOMATIC
A common but improperly used term applied to autoloading pistols in use today. Most current “automatic” pistols are truly semiautomatic in action only. See Semiautomatic.

PISTOL, DOUBLE ACTION
A pistol mechanism in which a single pull of the trigger cocks and releases the hammer.

PISTOL, SINGLE ACTION
A pistol mechanism, which requires the manual cocking of the hammer or striker before pressure on the trigger releases the firing mechanism.

PISTON RING
A sharp edged ring mounted on the piston of gas operated automatic and semiautomatic firearms which makes a close seal between the piston and cylinder wall, and by a scraping action reduces the accumulation of carbon in the cylinder.

PISTON, GAS
The component in a gas operated firearm upon which the gas impinges to operate the action.

PIT
A scar on a metal surface usually the result of extensive rusting.

PITCH
1. (Rifling) the distance a bullet must travel in the bore to make one revolution.
2. (Grips) the angle that the front of the handgun grip makes with the line of sight.
3. A component used in making clay targets.
4. See Stock Dimensions.

PLINKING
The informal target shooting at inanimate objects other than paper targets located at arbitrary or indefinite distances from the firing point.

PLUG, MAGAZINE
See Magazine Plug.

PLUG, SCREW
Screw used to fill holes for sight or telescope (sight) mounting when not in use. Also used to fill access holes to internal pins. Also called Dummy Screw.

POINT OF IMPACT
The point at which a bullet hits a target.

POINT-BLANK-RANGE
Very close range.

POINT-OF-AIM
The exact point on which the shooter aligns the firearm’s sights.

POINTED PROJECTILE
See Projectile, Pointed.

PORT
1. An opening in the wall of a barrel to allow gas to operate a mechanism or reduce sensible recoil.
2. An opening in a receiver to allow loading or ejection.

PORT, LOADING
The opening in a receiver where a cartridge may be placed in the firearm either directly into the chamber or the magazine.

POST SIGHT
See Sight, Post.

POWDER
Commonly used term for the propellant in a cartridge or shotshell.

POWDER BURN
1. A small sideways rupture, or pinhole, in a paper or plastic shotshell body that is caused by hot powder gases burning completely through the body wall.
2. A burn that may result from contact with minute, hot powder particles.

POWDER BURNING RATE
The speed with which a propellant burns. It is affected by both physical and chemical characteristics, as well as conditions under which it is burned.

POWDER CHARGE
The amount of powder by weight in a cartridge case.

POWDER DETERIORATION (SMOKELESS)
The chemical decomposition of modern smokeless propellant. It can be accelerated by improper storage conditions.

POWDER FOULING
Powder residue left in firearms after firing.

POWDER MEASURE
A device to measure quantities of powder volumetrically.

POWDER MILL
1. The machinery that produces powder to the required geometry.
2. A manufacturing facility that produces powder.

POWDER SCALE
A balance or weighing instrument for accurately weighing powder charges.

POWDER, BALL
A type of smokeless propellant powder with the kernels formed in the shape of a sphere or flattened sphere.

POWDER, BLACK
The earliest form of propellant, reputed to have been made by the Chinese or Hindus before the remote beginnings of history. First used for guns in the 13th century. It is a mechanical mixture of potassium or sodium nitrate (“saltpeter”), charcoal and sulfur.

POWDER, BRIDGING
The wedging action of powder in the feed tube of a cartridge loading device causing stoppage of normal flow.

POWDER, CANISTER
See Powder, Reloading.

POWDER, DOUBLE BASE
A propellant composed of colloided nitrocellulose and nitroglycerin as its base as opposed to single base powder which has colloided nitrocellulose only as its base material. The percentage of nitroglycerin aded ranges froma low of 3% to a high of 39%.

POWDER, FLAKE
A type of smokeless propellant in the form of thin discs or cut squares.

POWDER, IMR
The abbreviation fro Improved Military Rifle Powder. A single base, tubular, smokeless propellant.

POWDER, LOT
A homogeneous blend of powder having defined chemical and physical properties, as well as performance characteristics.

POWDER, NITROCELLULOSE
A smokeless propellant for ammunition whose principal ingredient is colloided nitrocellulose. The nitrogen content of the nitrocellulose is usually between 13.1% and 13.2%. Also known as Single Base Powder.

POWDER, NON-HYGROSCOPIC
Smokeless powder which resists water absorption.

POWDER, PROGRESSIVE BURNING
A smokeless propellant in which the burning rate is controlled by physical and/or chemical means.

POWDER, SINGLE BASE
That powder which has nitrocellulose as its main ingredient, and contains no other major energy producing component. See Powder, Double Base for comparison.

POWDER, SMOKELESS
A propellant containing mainly nitrocellulose (single base) or both nitrocellulose and nitroglycerine (double base).

POWDER, TRIPLE BASE
A propellant composed of colloided nitrocellulose, nitroglycerine and nitroguanidine. Generally used in large caliber military ammunition.

POWDERS, RELOADING
Propellant powders offered to individual consumers for loading small arms ammunition. Also called Canister Powders.

POWER TOOL
See PAT.

PREMATURE FIRING
The improper firing of a cartridge or shotshell before the breech or action of the firearm is fully closed and locked into firing position.

PRESCRIBED LOAD
See Load, Prescribed.

PRESS, RELOADING
A mechanical device for hand-loading metallic cartridges or shotshells.

PRESSURE
In a gun or cartridge, the force imparted to various components that is developed by the expanding gases generated by the deflagration of the propellant when fired.

PRESSURE BARREL
A heavy-walled barrel made to minimum chamber and bore dimensions and fitted with instrumentation to measure pressure.

PRESSURE CURVE
A graph of the relationship of chamber pressure to time or travel in a firearm when a cartridge or shell is fired.

PRESSURE DETERMINATION
The act of measuring the pressure generated in cartridges or shotshells contained in the chamber of a test barrel. See Pressure; Pressure, Average; Pressure Barrel; Pressure, Chamber; and Pressure Curve.

PRESSURE ESTIMATION
Attempting to roughly establish pressure of a cartridge by visual observation or measurement of a fired cartridge case.

PRESSURE GAGE
A piston and crusher system, or a piezoelectric transducer system used to measure internal barrel pressure in a firearm or test device.

PRESSURE GAGE, RADIAL
See Gage, Radial Pressure.

PRESSURE TRANSDUCER
See Transducer, Piezoelectric Pressure.

PRESSURE, AVERAGE
The arithmetic mean of a number of rounds tested for pressure.

PRESSURE, BREECH
See Pressure, Chamber.

PRESSURE, CHAMBER
That pressure imparted to a gun that is generated by the expanding propellant powder gases after ignition. Normally measured by means of piezoelectric transducers or crusher gages.

PRESSURE, PEAK
The highest value that the chamber pressure reaches during propellant burning.

PRESSURE, RESIDUAL
The pressure level that remains in the cartridge case or the shell within the firearm’s chamber, and in the bore, after the projectile leaves the muzzle of the firearm.

PRETRAVEL
The initial distance the trigger moves prior to sear movement. Also known as Trigger Take-up or Slack. See Trigger Creep.

PRIMER
A cartridge ignition component consisting of brass or gilding metal cup, priming mixture, anvil and foil disc, which fires the cartridge when struck with sufficient force.

PRIMER CRATERING
A circumferential rearward flow of metal surrounding the indentation of a firing-pin in a fired primer cup.

PRIMER CUP
Brass or copper cup designed to contain priming mixture.

PRIMER FLASH
The illumination produced by the extremely hot gases which result from the very rapid build-up of pressure and temperature when the priming mixture detonates.

PRIMER FLOW-BACK
See Primer Cratering.

PRIMER LEAK
The escape of gas between the primer cup and head of the cartridge case, or shotshell head.

PRIMER PELLET
The explosive component of a primer.

PRIMER POCKET
A cylindrical cavity formed in the head of a metallic centerfire cartridge case, or in the head of a shotshell, to receive an appropriate primer or battery cup primer assembly.

PRIMER SEATING
The insertion of a centerfire primer or battery cup in the head of a cartridge case or shotshell. Properly seated, it should be flush or below the face of the head.

PRIMER SETBACK
The condition when a primer, or battery cup primer assembly, moves partially out of its proper location in the primer pocket of a metallic cartridge or shotshell during firing.

PRIMER TUBE
A tube for holding primers in a handloading press.

PRIMER, AMERICAN
See Primer, Boxer.

PRIMER, BATTERY CUP
1. A flanged metal cup having a flash hole at the bottom end.
2. An ignition component using a battery cup as a holder for the other elements, usually found in shotshells

PRIMER, BERDAN
An ignition component consisting of a cup, explosive mixture and covering foil. The anvil is an integral part of the cartridge case head in the bottom center of the primer pocket. One or more flash holes are drilled or pierced through the bottom of the primer pocket into the propellant cavity of the base. Commonly found in European cartridges.

PRIMER, BLANKED
A fired primer cup in which the firing-pin indent has been punched out by internal gas pressure.

PRIMER, BLOWN
A primer that is separated completely from the cartridge or shotshell after firing due to severe expansion of the primer pocket and head.

PRIMER, BOXER
An ignition component consisting of a cup, explosive mixture, anvil and covering foil or disc which together form the completed primer ready for assembly into the primer pocket of a cartridge case. One central flash hole is pierced through the bottom of the primer pocket into the propellant cavity of the case. Used in modern commercial centerfire ammunition made in Canada and the United States.

PRIMER, CENTERFIRE
A cartridge initiator which is assembled central to the axis of the head of the cartridge case and which is actuated by a blow to the center of its axis, as opposed to a rimfire primer, which must be struck on the circumference of the cartridge head.

PRIMER, CORROSIVE
A priming mixture that contained compounds of chlorine and oxygen generally used in military ammunition made before 1952. The residues are hygroscopic and, therefore, promote rusting.

PRIMER, DROP TEST
See Sensitivity Test for Primed Shells or Primers.

PRIMER, DROPPED
One that is separated completely from the cartridge or shotshell after firing without obvious distortion of the primer pocket and head.

PRIMER, FLATTENED
1. A condition where the normally rounded corners of a fired primer cup are squared due to internal pressures.
2. A primer cup configuration in which the crown is flattened to alter sensitivity.

PRIMER, LOOSE
A primer which does not fit properly in the primer pocket of a cartridge case or shotshell.

PRIMER, NON-CORROSIVE
A primer which does not contain chemical compounds that could produce corrosion or rust in gun barrels. It does not by itself prevent corrosion or rust.

PRIMER, NON-MERCURIC
A primer which does not contain compounds of mercury.

PRIMER, PIERCED
A fired primer which has been perforated by the firing-pin.

PRIMER, RIMFIRE
A type of primer found in the circumferential cavity or rim of rimfire ammunition. Usable only with rimfire guns. See Primer, Centerfire.

PRIMING MIXTURE
A combination of explosive and/or pyrotechnic type ingredients, which, when pressed into a cup or spun into the rim cavity of a rimfire shell, will explode or deflagrate from the impact of a firing-pin and ignite the propellant in a cartridge or shotshell.

PROJECTILE
An object propelled from a firearm by the force of rapidly burning gases or other means.

PROJECTILE ROTATION
The spinning motion that is imparted to a projectile due to engagement with the rifling in the barrel of a firearm, as it is driven down the barrel. The rate of rotation is dependent upon the rate of twist of the rifling and the velocity. The barrel twist (left or right) determines the direction of the rotation.

PROJECTILE, DISINTEGRATING
A projectile that breaks up after leaving the muzzle and before it hits the target.

PROJECTILE, FLAT NOSE
A projectile which is flat at its forward end.

PROJECTILE, FRANGIBLE
A projectile that breaks up readily upon impact with the target to minimize ricochets or over penetration.

PROJECTILE, FULL JACKETED
See Bullet, Full Metal Jacket.

PROJECTILE, POINTED
A projectile that is designed with a pointed profile.

PROJECTILE, ROUND BALL
A spherical projectile, usually of lead.

PROJECTILE, SABOT TYPE
A sub-caliber projectile centered in a lightweight carrier to permit firing the sub-caliber projectile in a larger caliber firearm.

PROJECTILE, SOFT POINT
A hunting projectile designed with exposed lead at the nose, to initiate expansion of the projectile upon impact.

PROJECTILE, SPENT
See Bullet, Spent.

PROJECTILE, SPIRE POINT
A projectile with a conical nose profile.

PROJECTILE, SPITZER
A pointed projectile with a profile characterized by a curved ogive and a small flat.

PROOF CARTRIDGE, DEFINITIVE
See Cartridge, Definitive Proof.

PROOF CARTRIDGE, PROVISIONAL
See Cartridge, Provisional Proof (Historical).

PROOF MARK
A stamp applied at or near the breech or other stressed component of a firearm after it has passed a proof test.

PROOF TEST
The test of an assembled firearm or individual components by firing a Definitive Proof Cartridge.

PROPELLANT
In a firearm, the chemical composition which, when ignited by a primer, generates gas. The gas propels the projectile. Also called powder, gunpowder, smokeless powder, blackpowder.

PULL, LENGTH OF
See Stock Dimensions.

PULL-THROUGH
A flexible device that is pulled through the barrel of a firearm to clean the barrel.

PUMP ACTION
See Action, Pump.

PUMP GUN
See Action, Slide.

PUNCTURED PRIMER
See Primer, Pierced.

PUSH BUTTON SAFETY
See Safety, Cross Bolt.

PYRAMID SIGHT
See Sight, Pyramid.

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N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Abbreviations:

A-L | M-Z